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Voice disorders

These can occur when the voice is used incorrectly (functional voice disorders) or they can have a physiological cause (such as a larynx operation or changes at the larynx, i.e. because of a tumor). The voice can sound rough, hoarse, pressed, quiet, croaky or creaky. The urge to cough often or the voice tiring very quickly can be other symptoms.

Pronunciation disorders (articulation disorders or dyslalia)

Adults who show an articulation disorder pronounce one or more phonemes incorrectly. This can be a result of an incorrectly acquired moving pattern of the tongue (i.e. lisping) or of physiological changes of the oral cravity (i.e. because of a cheilognathouranoschisis).

Stuttering / Stammering

Phonemes, syllables or words are repeated involuntarily, phonemes might be lengthened and/or words might be blocked when being pronounced. The degree of the stuttering often depends on the situation one is exposed to and as a result of the stammering the people who are affected suffer noticeably.


People who clutter speak very fast and very hastily, which often leads to inarticulate pronunciation and makes it difficult for others to understand them. Syllables are left out frequently or drawn together. They also tend to repeat certain words or syllables like people who stammer. However, they are usually not aware of their problem.

Speech disorders after brain damages (Aphasia)

People who suffer from aphasia have lost parts of or all of their speaking abilities. It is usually caused by a stroke, a brain hemorrhage or a head injury. The people affected often have problems to find the right words or cannot construct a complete sentence. Usually it is also difficult for them to understand spoken language. But the disorder does not only impair the expression and understanding of spoken language but also other areas such as reading and writing.


Dysarthria is a speech disorder caused by weak, uncoordinated or paralyzed muscles needed for speaking. People who suffer from dysarthria mumble and have a slurred pronunciation. However, they understand spoken language, can find the right words and have no problems with reading. Dysarthria is often accompanied by other diseases, such as Morbus Parkinson, amyothrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS) or a craniocerebral trauma after an accident.

Apraxia of speech

Verbal apraxia is a speech disorder in which a person has trouble saying what he or she wants to say correctly. This means people affected by this problem cannot come up with the right speaking order in their brain. It is not due to weak or paralyzed speech muscles because these work perfectly.

Difficulties with swallowing (Dysphagia)

People who suffer from dysphagia have problems swallowing or can hardly swallow at all. They often choke on food, liquids or saliva. Difficulties with swallowing can be the result of an operation or brain damage or can be caused by another degenerative health condition, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or Morbus Parkinson.